Sex represents a major source of diversity among patients in terms of pathophysiology, clinical presentation, prognosis and response to therapy, and therefore sex (gender)-informed medicine is becoming a new paradigm to refine clinical decision making process in different human diseases. Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are heterogeneous disease characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis and risk of leukemic evolution. We aimed to study clinical effect of sex in MDS as a basis to improve patient prognostication and personalized treatment.